The Secrets of Medicine

All you need to know about Medicine

COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH

A cough is a natural reflex that is your body’s way of removing irritants from your upper (throat) and lower (lungs) airways. 

A cough helps your body heal and protect itself.

It is also a common symptom of pulmonary diseases.

According to duration, mucus production, sound and time, cough is classified:

TYPES OF COUGH
Related to Duration of Cough:ACUTE COUGHBegins suddenly and lasts for two to three weeks.
SUBACUTE COUGHStays around after an infection and lasts three to eight weeks.
CHRONIC COUGHLasts longer than eight weeks. Long-lasting coughs may also be called persistent coughs.
Related to Mucus in CoughPRODUCTIVE COUGH (WET COUGH)Cough that brings up mucus or phlegm to clear secretions from airways.
NON-PRODUCTIVE COUGH (DRY COUGH)Doesn’t bring up mucus. Hacking cough with no value and irritate respiratory mucosa.
Related to distinct sounds of CoughWHOOPINGPertussis, or whooping cough, is an infection that causescough that sounds like whoop.
BARKINGA cough that sounds like barking can be a sign of croup.
WHEEZINGBlocked airways can be associated with infection like cold or chronic conditions.
Related to when you CoughDAYTIME COUGHDue to asthma, post nasal drip or GERD.
EARLY MORNINGCommonly in smokers which leads to chronic bronchitis.
NOCTURNAL COUGH Asthma or congestive heart failure patients.
COUGH WITH VOMITINGThis often happens with children.

Title
5-NUCLEOTIDASE
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ABDOMINAL TRAUMA-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-morbidity and mortality of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute appendicitis?
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-clinical presentation
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-complications
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-diagnosis
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-etiology
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-incidence and prevalence
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-pathophysiology
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-prevention
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-risk factors
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-severity grading
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-severity of patient’s situation
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-treatment
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-trends and future directions
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-what is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
AFLATOXINS
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
BILIRUBIN
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS OF THE BODY
BLOOD PRESSURE-why blood pressure is checked on the left arm than the right arm?
BLUE MAN SYNDROME
Bowel components
Branches of internal iliac artery
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CANCER-treatment
CANCER-tumor markers
CANCER-weight loss
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CHEMOTHERAPY-definition
CHOLECYSTECTOMY-indications
CHYLOTHORAX-epidemiology of chylothorax
CHYLOTHORAX-etiology of chylothorax
CHYLOTHORAX-pathophysiology of chylothorax
CHYLOTHORAX-what is chylothorax
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
CONTINOUS FEVER-causes
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-accuracy
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-advantages and limitations
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-complications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-indications and contraindications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-interpretation
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-procedure
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-what is?
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DIGITAL RECTAL EXAM
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-6P of dyspnea
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EXTEMPORANEOUS HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FEMORAL TRIANGLE
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
Folic Acid
GALLBLADDER STONES-What are gallbladder stones?
GALLSTONES-Are certain medical conditions associated with a higher risk of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Are gallstones more common in certain age groups?
GALLSTONES-Are there any specific risk factors for developing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Can diet influence the formation of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Can gallstones be asymptomatic?
GALLSTONES-Can gallstones cause liver problems?
GALLSTONES-Can herbal supplements help in managing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-How are gallstones diagnosed?
GALLSTONES-How common are gallstones?
GALLSTONES-How do gallstones form?
GALLSTONES-How does the healthcare system manage gallstone-related issues?
GALLSTONES-Is there a genetic predisposition to developing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the common symptoms of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the complications associated with gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the main causes of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the treatment options for gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the types of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What imaging tests are used to detect gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of bile in the formation of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE (GGT)
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
GASTRIC GIST
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
GOUT
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
GROOVED PLANTAR KERATOLYSIS
HAMARTOMA-By what mechanisms do hamartomas cause morbidity?
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What is a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-Where do hamartomas grow?
HAMARTOMA-Why do hamartomas form?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HAMARTOMAS
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HEPATIC VEIN PRESSURE GRADIENT
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYOID BONE
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
INTRAOPERATIVE FROZEN SECTION ANALYSIS
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
JUVENILE POLYPS
KIDNEY-The kidneys and their functions
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
LAPAROSCOPY-Is laparoscopy safe in a patient with abdominal sepsis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
LAPAROSCOPY-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute appendicitis?
LAPAROSCOPY-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
LOIN PAIN-causes
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Medical history-How should be the first contact with the patient?
Medical history-What could be the reason for the medical visit?
MEDICAL TRIAD
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
METEORISM-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-familiarity
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
NODULAR FASCIITIS
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
NUTCRACKER SYNDROME
OCCIPITAL BONE
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERFORATED DIVERTICULAR DISEASE-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
PERFORATED PEPTIC ULCER-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
PERIODIC FEVER SYNDROMES
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERMANENT STUFFING OF THE TONGUE (macroglossia)-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
R ratio
RADIOIODINE THERAPY
RED MAN SYNDROME
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
REYE SYNDROME-Complications of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Follow-up of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What is a surgical suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SURGICAL SUTURE-Why apply a surgical suture?
SUTURE THREADS
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
THORACOSTOMY
THORACOSTOMY-indications
THORACOSTOMY-procedure steps
THORACOSTOMY-risks and complications
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
TUMOR MARKERS-list of tumor markers
URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 
VERMIFORM APPENDIX
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-function of vermiform appendix
VITAL SIGNS
Vitamin K antagonists
Vomiting
WASSERMANN REACTION
WOUND TYPES
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ABDOMINAL TRAUMA-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-morbidity and mortality of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute appendicitis?
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-clinical presentation
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-complications
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-diagnosis
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-etiology
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-incidence and prevalence
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-pathophysiology
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-prevention
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-risk factors
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-severity grading
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-severity of patient’s situation
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-treatment
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-trends and future directions
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-what is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
AFLATOXINS
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS OF THE BODY
Branches of internal iliac artery
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-accuracy
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-advantages and limitations
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
Folic Acid
GALLSTONES-Are certain medical conditions associated with a higher risk of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Are gallstones more common in certain age groups?
GALLSTONES-Can gallstones be asymptomatic?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LAPAROSCOPY-Is laparoscopy safe in a patient with abdominal sepsis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
LAPAROSCOPY-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute appendicitis?
LAPAROSCOPY-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 
VERMIFORM APPENDIX
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-function of vermiform appendix
Vitamin K antagonists

Title
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-clinical presentation
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-complications
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
Bowel components
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CANCER-treatment
CANCER-tumor markers
CANCER-weight loss
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CHEMOTHERAPY-definition
CHOLECYSTECTOMY-indications
CHYLOTHORAX-epidemiology of chylothorax
CHYLOTHORAX-etiology of chylothorax
CHYLOTHORAX-pathophysiology of chylothorax
CHYLOTHORAX-what is chylothorax
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
CONTINOUS FEVER-causes
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-etiologic classification
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-complications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-indications and contraindications
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
GALLSTONES-Are gallstones more common in certain age groups?
GALLSTONES-How common are gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the complications associated with gallstones?
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METEORISM-causes
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
POLYURIA-causes
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
THORACOSTOMY-risks and complications
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-diagnosis
Acute diverticulitis
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-accuracy
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-advantages and limitations
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-complications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-indications and contraindications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-interpretation
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-procedure
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-what is?
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DIGITAL RECTAL EXAM
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-6P of dyspnea
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
GALLSTONES-Can diet influence the formation of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-How are gallstones diagnosed?
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition

Title
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-etiology
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CHYLOTHORAX-epidemiology of chylothorax
CHYLOTHORAX-etiology of chylothorax
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIGITAL RECTAL EXAM
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EXTEMPORANEOUS HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix

Title
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
GALLBLADDER STONES-What are gallbladder stones?
GALLSTONES-Are certain medical conditions associated with a higher risk of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Are gallstones more common in certain age groups?
GALLSTONES-Are there any specific risk factors for developing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Can diet influence the formation of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Can gallstones be asymptomatic?
GALLSTONES-Can gallstones cause liver problems?
GALLSTONES-Can herbal supplements help in managing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-How are gallstones diagnosed?
GALLSTONES-How common are gallstones?
GALLSTONES-How do gallstones form?
GALLSTONES-How does the healthcare system manage gallstone-related issues?
GALLSTONES-Is there a genetic predisposition to developing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the common symptoms of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the complications associated with gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the main causes of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the treatment options for gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the types of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What imaging tests are used to detect gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of bile in the formation of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE (GGT)
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
GASTRIC GIST
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
GOUT
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
GROOVED PLANTAR KERATOLYSIS
HAMARTOMA-Where do hamartomas grow?
URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 

Title
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EXTEMPORANEOUS HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
GALLSTONES-Can herbal supplements help in managing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-How does the healthcare system manage gallstone-related issues?
HAMARTOMA-By what mechanisms do hamartomas cause morbidity?
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What is a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-Where do hamartomas grow?
HAMARTOMA-Why do hamartomas form?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HAMARTOMAS
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HEPATIC VEIN PRESSURE GRADIENT
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYOID BONE
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing

Title
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-incidence and prevalence
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS OF THE BODY
Branches of internal iliac artery
CHOLECYSTECTOMY-indications
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-indications and contraindications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-interpretation
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
GALLSTONES-Can diet influence the formation of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-How does the healthcare system manage gallstone-related issues?
GALLSTONES-What imaging tests are used to detect gallstones?
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
INTRAOPERATIVE FROZEN SECTION ANALYSIS
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
THORACOSTOMY-indications
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Title
ABDOMINAL TRAUMA-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute appendicitis?
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-what is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
BLOOD PRESSURE-why blood pressure is checked on the left arm than the right arm?
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-advantages and limitations
Duodenum-lengths of parts
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
GALLSTONES-Can gallstones cause liver problems?
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
LAPAROSCOPY-Is laparoscopy safe in a patient with abdominal sepsis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
LAPAROSCOPY-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute appendicitis?
LAPAROSCOPY-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
LOIN PAIN-causes
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PERFORATED DIVERTICULAR DISEASE-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
PERFORATED PEPTIC ULCER-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
TUMOR MARKERS-list of tumor markers

Title
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-morbidity and mortality of acute appendicitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Aortic arch-major branch order
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
GALLSTONES-Are certain medical conditions associated with a higher risk of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the main causes of gallstones?
HAMARTOMA-By what mechanisms do hamartomas cause morbidity?
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Medical history-How should be the first contact with the patient?
Medical history-What could be the reason for the medical visit?
MEDICAL TRIAD
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
METEORISM-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
PERMANENT STUFFING OF THE TONGUE (macroglossia)-causes
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning

Title
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-incidence and prevalence
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-pathophysiology
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-prevention
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-severity of patient’s situation
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CHYLOTHORAX-pathophysiology of chylothorax
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
COLORECTAL POLYPS
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-accuracy
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-advantages and limitations
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-complications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-indications and contraindications
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-interpretation
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-procedure
DIAGNOSTIC PERITONEAL LAVAGE-what is?
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
Duodenum-lengths of parts
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
GALLSTONES-Is there a genetic predisposition to developing gallstones?
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
LAPAROSCOPY-Is laparoscopy safe in a patient with abdominal sepsis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LOIN PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Medical history-How should be the first contact with the patient?
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERFORATED DIVERTICULAR DISEASE-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
PERFORATED PEPTIC ULCER-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
PERIODIC FEVER SYNDROMES
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERMANENT STUFFING OF THE TONGUE (macroglossia)-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
THORACOSTOMY-procedure steps

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Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ABDOMINAL TRAUMA-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute appendicitis?
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-risk factors
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-what is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
DIGITAL RECTAL EXAM
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
GALLSTONES-Are certain medical conditions associated with a higher risk of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-Are there any specific risk factors for developing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of bile in the formation of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in abdominal trauma ?
LAPAROSCOPY-What is the role of laparoscopy in acute cholecystitis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
Medical history-What could be the reason for the medical visit?
PERFORATED DIVERTICULAR DISEASE-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated diverticular disease (PDD) ? 
PERFORATED PEPTIC ULCER-what is the role of laparoscopy in perforated peptic ulcer (PPU)?
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
R ratio
RADIOIODINE THERAPY
RED MAN SYNDROME
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
REYE SYNDROME-Complications of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Follow-up of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
THORACOSTOMY-risks and complications
WASSERMANN REACTION

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ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-severity grading
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-severity of patient’s situation
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
BLUE MAN SYNDROME
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
GALLBLADDER STONES-What are gallbladder stones?
GALLSTONES-Are there any specific risk factors for developing gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the common symptoms of gallstones?
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
LAPAROSCOPY-Is laparoscopy safe in a patient with abdominal sepsis?
LAPAROSCOPY-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NUTCRACKER SYNDROME
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PERIODIC FEVER SYNDROMES
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
RED MAN SYNDROME
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-what is the role of laparoscopy in small bowel obstruction (SBO)? 
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What is a surgical suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SURGICAL SUTURE-Why apply a surgical suture?
SUTURE THREADS
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
VITAL SIGNS
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing

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ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-treatment
ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS-trends and future directions
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CANCER-treatment
CANCER-tumor markers
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
FEMORAL TRIANGLE
GALLSTONES-What are the treatment options for gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What are the types of gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What imaging tests are used to detect gallstones?
GALLSTONES-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL TRIAD
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PERMANENT STUFFING OF THE TONGUE (macroglossia)-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PROTHROMBIN TIME
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
THORACOSTOMY
THORACOSTOMY-indications
THORACOSTOMY-procedure steps
THORACOSTOMY-risks and complications
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
TUMOR MARKERS-list of tumor markers
URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID-What is the role of ursodeoxycholic acid in the treatment of biliary tract stones? 

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