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GROOVE PANCREATITIS

Groove pancreatitis (GP) is an uncommon form of chronic pancreatitis (CP) involving the space between duodenum, pancreatic head and common bile duct (CBD) known as pancreatic-duodenal groove.

Clinical presentation

Most patients with GP are male, aged 40–50 years, with a history of severe chronic alcoholism and, in a lower percentage, also associated with smoking.

Abdominal pain, postprandial vomiting and weight loss, primarily due to duodenal obstruction, are the most common manifestations of GP, with concomitant twofold or threefold increase of serum amylase concentration, or heavy levels of serum lipase.

About 80% of the patients with the clinical symptoms of acute pancreatitis present such high concentrations of the serum of pancreatic amylase and serum lipase levels. Tumor markers (CA 19-9 and CEA) are usually normal.

It has also been reported that diarrhea or diabetes mellitus are commonly associated with GP. The clinical symptoms of the syndrome spread over the time span ranging from a few weeks to a year, then the GP becomes chronic. In a high number of patients with alcohol abuse, obstructive jaundice has been observed especially in the course of chronic disease if late stenosis of the CBD has occurred.

Etiology and pathogenesis

The etiology of GP is likely heterogeneous implying a series of factors possibly playing a role in its development. There is general agreement about the effects for people who abuse of ethyl alcohol on disease development and all its clinical manifestations.

Chronic alcohol intake causes a decrease in bicarbonate secretion which increases viscosity and consequent stagnation of pancreatic secretion in pancreatic ducts; it follows an increase in pressure inside the Santorini duct with the release of the secretion in the groove that promotes the formation of pseudocysts.

One of the mechanisms hypothesized for the development of CP associated with the alcohol abuse provides that alcohol predispose acinar cells to autodigestive injury and necro-inflammation by increasing the synthesis of digestive and lysosomal enzymes leading to autodigestive cellular damage, acinar injury and pancreatic necro-inflammation.

It is now accepted that the disease progresses irreversibly from the initial stages of necro-inflammation towards chronic stage of acute pancreatic through repeated attack episodes.

The latter produce additional and permanent structural damage to the gland, in the segmental form, resulting in the changes of CP characterized histologically by acinar atrophy and fibrosis (the necrosis-fibrosis sequence), which impair both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic functions.

The classic MDCT imaging features consist of loss of fat planes between head of pancreas and the duodenum with an ill-defined crescentic frank soft tissue mass seen with the pure form of GP.

On MRI imaging, GP is characterized by sheet-like mass between the pancreatic head and the duodenum. The mass is hypointense to pancreatic parenchyma on T1-weighted images, and according to the time of disease onset can be hypo-, iso- or slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted images.

On delayed gadolinium-enhanced images, the diagnostic accuracy of MRI is comparable to that of CT in the characterization of fibrotic mass. 

Cystic degeneration within the duodenal wall is a specific sign of GP. The typical findings are cysts, variable in size and complexity in the thickened duodenal wall.

MRCP has become an important diagnostic tool in a variety of pancreaticobiliary disorders and in particular in imaging workup of patients with GP.

Using MRCP, it is possible to detect the reduction of the caliber with regular smooth profile of the distal CBD.

MRCP may show dilatation of the MPD in the form of segmental GP, while it may appear normal in the pure form.

MRCP may show the dilation of the ampulla of Vater and the MPD, both of which are common gross features of segmental GP, detect relationships among cysts, CBD and MP, and also reveal the increase of the distance between duodenal lumen and distal duct.

EUS represents one of the most sensitive methods for detecting pancreaticobiliary lesions. The potentialities of the EUS are multiple, as it can also detect thickening and stenosis of the second duodenal part with intramural cysts, smooth stenosis of the CBD.

Differential diagnosis

  • Pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  • Duodenal adenocarcinoma
  • Periampullary cancers
  • Pancreatic groove neuroendocrine tumor
  • Cystic dystrophy of the duodenum
  • Conventional edematous pancreatitis with involvement of the groove
  • Acute pancreatitis

Management

The management is usually conservative, with medical and endoscopic therapy in the initial stages. Conservative management options are a healthy balanced diet, pain management, pancreatic rest, and abstinence from alcohol and smoking.

Usually, these measures provide short-term relief, and occasionally they do provide long-term benefits.

Endoscopic therapies are beneficial but could involve a therapeutic failure in about 10 to 20% of patients.

The usual definitive therapy is surgery (Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy) in most cases that are refractory to conservative therapy or in which the diagnosis is inconclusive.

Reference:

Addeo G, Beccani D, Cozzi D, Ferrari R, Lanzetta MM, Paolantonio P, Pradella S, Miele V. Groove pancreatitis: a challenging imaging diagnosis. Gland Surg. 2019 Sep;8(Suppl 3):S178-S187. doi: 10.21037/gs.2019.04.06. PMID: 31559185; PMCID: PMC6755950.

Brar HS, Shah NJ, Bukeirat F. Groove Pancreatitis. [Updated 2023 Feb 27]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2023 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK589647/#

Title
5-NUCLEOTIDASE
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-morbidity and mortality of acute appendicitis
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
BILIRUBIN
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS OF THE BODY
BLOOD PRESSURE-why blood pressure is checked on the left arm than the right arm?
BLUE MAN SYNDROME
Bowel components
Branches of internal iliac artery
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CANCER-treatment
CANCER-tumor markers
CANCER-weight loss
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CHEMOTHERAPY-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
CONTINOUS FEVER-causes
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EXTEMPORANEOUS HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
Folic Acid
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE (GGT)
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
GASTRIC GIST
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
GOUT
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
GROOVED PLANTAR KERATOLYSIS
HAMARTOMA-By what mechanisms do hamartomas cause morbidity?
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What is a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-Where do hamartomas grow?
HAMARTOMA-Why do hamartomas form?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HAMARTOMAS
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HEPATIC VEIN PRESSURE GRADIENT
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYOID BONE
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
INTRAOPERATIVE FROZEN SECTION ANALYSIS
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
JUVENILE POLYPS
KIDNEY-The kidneys and their functions
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
LOIN PAIN-causes
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Medical history-How should be the first contact with the patient?
Medical history-What could be the reason for the medical visit?
MEDICAL TRIAD
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
METEORISM-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-familiarity
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
NODULAR FASCIITIS
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
NUTCRACKER SYNDROME
OCCIPITAL BONE
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERIODIC FEVER SYNDROMES
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
R ratio
RADIOIODINE THERAPY
RED MAN SYNDROME
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
REYE SYNDROME-Complications of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Follow-up of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What is a surgical suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SURGICAL SUTURE-Why apply a surgical suture?
SUTURE THREADS
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
TUMOR MARKERS-list of tumor markers
VERMIFORM APPENDIX
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-function of vermiform appendix
VITAL SIGNS
Vitamin K antagonists
Vomiting
WASSERMANN REACTION
WOUND TYPES
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-morbidity and mortality of acute appendicitis
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS OF THE BODY
Branches of internal iliac artery
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
Folic Acid
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
VERMIFORM APPENDIX
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-function of vermiform appendix
Vitamin K antagonists

Title
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
Bowel components
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CANCER-treatment
CANCER-tumor markers
CANCER-weight loss
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CHEMOTHERAPY-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
CONTINOUS FEVER-causes
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-etiologic classification
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METEORISM-causes
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
POLYURIA-causes
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
Acute diverticulitis
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition

Title
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
DIABETES-etiologic classification
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EXTEMPORANEOUS HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix

Title
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EXTEMPORANEOUS HISTOLOGICAL EXAMINATION
HAMARTOMA-By what mechanisms do hamartomas cause morbidity?
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What is a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-Where do hamartomas grow?
HAMARTOMA-Why do hamartomas form?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HAMARTOMAS
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HEPATIC VEIN PRESSURE GRADIENT
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYOID BONE
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing

Title
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS OF THE BODY
Branches of internal iliac artery
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
INTRAOPERATIVE FROZEN SECTION ANALYSIS
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Title
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
COLORECTAL POLYPS
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
Duodenum-lengths of parts
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LOIN PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Medical history-How should be the first contact with the patient?
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERIODIC FEVER SYNDROMES
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes

Title
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
Medical history-What could be the reason for the medical visit?
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
R ratio
RADIOIODINE THERAPY
RED MAN SYNDROME
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
REYE SYNDROME-Complications of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Follow-up of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
WASSERMANN REACTION

Title
AESTHETIC SKIN CHECK-UP-what is?
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
BLUE MAN SYNDROME
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
COSMETOLOGICAL SKIN CHECK-UP PREPARATION
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NUTCRACKER SYNDROME
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PERIODIC FEVER SYNDROMES
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
RED MAN SYNDROME
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What is a surgical suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SURGICAL SUTURE-Why apply a surgical suture?
SUTURE THREADS
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
VITAL SIGNS
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing

Title
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-test that definitively demonstrates the presence of a tumor
CANCER-treatment
CANCER-tumor markers
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL TRIAD
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PROTHROMBIN TIME
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
TUMOR MARKERS-list of tumor markers

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