Risk factors include anatomical and physiological mechanisms and grooming techniques, including excessive or improper trimming of the lateral nail plate.
Repetitive toe trauma (e.g., running, kicking), unintentional nail injury, wearing tight footwear, and impaired ability to care for your nails are risk factors.
Other predisposing factors for ingrown toenails include hyperhidrosis and the use of certain medications, especially epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (gefitinib, cetuximab).
Some studies have found pincer nail deformity, broad nail plates, congenital malalignment of the toenails, and thickening of the nail plate to be possible risk factors for ingrown toenails.
Those who are obese, diabetic or arthritic and those who have an abnormal gait or toe deformities such as hammertoes or bunions are also likely to be at an increased risk of onychocryptosis.
Also at risk are those who havefungal infections in the toes or edema of the lower extremities.