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NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis

What is the prognosis for someone with carcinoid tumor?

The prognosis for someone with a carcinoid tumor depends on various factors, including the tumor’s location, size, grade, stage, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.
Carcinoid tumors are a type of neuroendocrine tumor (NET), and their prognosis can vary widely from person to person.
In general, the outlook for individuals with carcinoid tumors is often more favorable compared to other types of cancer, primarily because many carcinoid tumors tend to be slow-growing.
Here are some key factors that can influence the prognosis of a person with a carcinoid tumor:

Tumor Location:
The location of the carcinoid tumor plays a significant role in the prognosis. Carcinoid tumors in the appendix and small intestine often have a more favorable prognosis, while those in the lung or large bowel may have a different outlook.

Tumor Grade and Stage:
The grade of the carcinoid tumor (how abnormal the cells appear) and its stage (how far it has spread) are crucial in determining the prognosis. Well-differentiated, low-grade tumors have a better prognosis than poorly differentiated, high-grade tumors.

Metastasis:
If the carcinoid tumor has spread to other organs or lymph nodes, the prognosis may be less favorable. The extent of metastasis is an essential factor in determining the outlook.

Functional vs. Non-functional Tumors:
Some carcinoid tumors are functional and produce hormones, leading to symptoms like flushing, diarrhea, and wheezing. Non-functional tumors do not produce significant hormones and may not cause symptoms. Functional tumors often lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment, potentially improving the prognosis.

Surgical Resection:
Surgical removal of the tumor is a common treatment for carcinoid tumors. If the tumor can be completely removed, and if it is small and localized, the prognosis may be quite favorable.

Response to Treatment:
The response to treatments such as surgery, somatostatin analogues, and other therapies can influence the prognosis. Some carcinoid tumors respond well to treatment, while others may be less responsive.

Patient’s Overall Health:
The overall health of the patient, including their age and the presence of other medical conditions, can affect the prognosis.

It’s essential for individuals diagnosed with a carcinoid tumor to work closely with a medical team experienced in managing these tumors. Regular follow-up care is crucial for monitoring the tumor’s behavior and response to treatment.
While many carcinoid tumors are relatively indolent and have a good prognosis, each case is unique, and treatment plans are individualized based on the specific characteristics of the tumor and the patient’s health.
Early diagnosis and treatment can positively impact the prognosis for individuals with carcinoid tumors.

Title
5-NUCLEOTIDASE
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
BILIRUBIN
BLUE MAN SYNDROME
Bowel components
Branches of internal iliac artery
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
Folic Acid
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE (GGT)
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
GASTRIC GIST
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
GOUT
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
GROOVED PLANTAR KERATOLYSIS
HAMARTOMAS
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HEPATIC VEIN PRESSURE GRADIENT
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYOID BONE
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
JUVENILE POLYPS
KIDNEY-The kidneys and their functions
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
LOIN PAIN-causes
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
MEDICAL TRIAD
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
METEORISM-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-familiarity
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
NODULAR FASCIITIS
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
NUTCRACKER SYNDROME
OCCIPITAL BONE
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
R ratio
RADIOIODINE THERAPY
RED MAN SYNDROME
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
REYE SYNDROME-Complications of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Follow-up of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What is a surgical suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SURGICAL SUTURE-Why apply a surgical suture?
SUTURE THREADS
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
VITAL SIGNS
Vitamin K antagonists
Vomiting
WASSERMANN REACTION
WOUND TYPES
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
Branches of internal iliac artery
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
Folic Acid
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
Vitamin K antagonists

Title
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
Bowel components
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-etiologic classification
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METEORISM-causes
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLOR-CAUSES
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
POLYURIA-causes
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
Acute diverticulitis
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition

Title
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
DIABETES-etiologic classification
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning

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ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
Branches of internal iliac artery
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

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Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
Duodenum-lengths of parts
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LOIN PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes

Title
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL TRIAD
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PROTHROMBIN TIME
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

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