The Secrets of Medicine

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SUTURE THREADS

What is meant by suture thread?

Suture thread is a filament used in surgery for the synthesis of biological tissues.

Classification of sutures

The sutures can be classified on the basis of these criteria:

Based on the originanimal, vegetable or synthetic
By materialNatural threads
Based on resorption
In base al riassorbimentoAbsorbable threads
Non-absorbable threads
Based on the structureIntertwined threads
Monofilaments
According to the coatingCoated
Uncoated
ABSORBABLENOT ABSORBABLE
NATURALCATGUT
CHROMIC CATGUT
SILK
STEEL
SYNTHETICPOLIGLACTIN 90: vicryl*
POLYDIOXANONE: pds*
POLYGLECAPRONE:monocryl*
POLYAMIDE : nylon*
POLYESTER: ethibond*
POLYPROPYLENE: prolene*

Characteristics of an ideal suture thread

An ideal suture thread must have these characteristics:

  • Be sterilizable and easy to sterilize
  • Be inert (hypoallergenic, non-inflammatory, non-carcinogenic)
  • Do not interfere with normal healing processes
  • Have easy handling, flexibility and poor memory
  • Be smooth in the fabrics
  • Have the ability to hold the knot (linked to flexibility and elasticity)
  • Strength and tensile strength
  • Have highly uniform tensile strength in relation to gauge
  • Have elasticity (to accommodate variations in the volume of the tissue included in the suture: edema, resolution of edema)
  • Be resistant to infections, impermeable to the penetration of body fluids or microorganisms
  • Be easy to find
  • Be cheap (low cost)

Until today it is impossible to find an ideal suture thread (having all these characteristics). For this reason, there is a large variety of surgical threads, each suitable for a particular type of suture.

Main characteristics of a suture thread

The main characteristics of a suture thread are:

  • The material it is made of (eg vicryl, prolene);
  • The gauge of the wire (eg 2/0; 3/0);
  • The type and size of needle mounted in the thread (eg sharp needle, 25);
    Memory effect (tendency of a thread to return to its original position, which results in difficulty in knotting the thread);
  • Elasticity (ability of a thread to return to its starting position after being subjected to traction – a useful feature in edematous tissues);
  • Plasticity (the ability of a thread to stretch when subjected to traction without returning to its starting length);
  • Tensile strength (tensile strength) – force required to break the thread in areas subjected to tension (eg fascia of muscles, tendons);
  • Knot strength – force needed to untie a knot;
  • Capillarity (tendency of a suture thread to absorb water and be colonized by microorganisms);

Absorption mechanism of absorbable threads

For sutures of natural origin, absorption occurs enzymatically, while for synthetic sutures it occurs hydrolyticly.

Advantages and disadvantages of wire with a braided structure

Advantages:

  • handy
  • absence of memory
  • roughness
  • node security

Disadvantages:

  • capillarity (infiltration and bacterial migration in the interstices)
  • friction through the tissues

Advantages and disadvantages of line with monofilament structure

Advantages:

  • Biological inertia
  • Smoothness

Disadvantages:

  • Less knot strength
  • Memory

How to choose a suture thread?

There is no ideal thread for every type of suture but there is a more suitable thread for every situation.

When choosing, you must consider:

  • Tissutal resistance.
  • Wire resistance.
  • Size of the thread in relation to the resistance of the fabrics.
  • Thread tension and deformation in relation to the same tissue characteristics.
  • Tissue healing times.

Materials and trade names of non-absorbable threads

Non-absorbable sutures have different trade names. In the table below, the main commercial names are presented:

MATERIALSUTURE THREAD
PolyamideDafilon®, Ethilon®, Supramid®, Nurolon®, Surgilon®
PolypropylenePremilene®, Prolene®, Surgilene®, Surgipro®
PolyesterEthibond®, Ti-Cron®, Synthofil®, Dagrofil®, Mersilene®
NylonAssunyl®, Assufil®
SilkSoftsilk®, Silkam®, Virgin Silk®, Mersilk®
SteelSteelex®, Steel wire®, Steel®

Materials and commercial names of absorbable threads

Absorbable sutures have different trade names. In the table below, the main commercial names are presented:

MATERIALSUTURE THREAD
CatgutProgut®, catgut cromico
Polyglycolic acidSafil®, Safil Quick®, Dexon®
Polyglactin 910Vicryl®, Vicryl Rapide®
GlycomerBiosyn®
GlyconateMonosyn®
PolydioxanonePDSII®, MonoPlus®
PolyglyconateMaxon®

SILK

SHARES
It is stable to tissue enzymes. Although non-absorbable, a progressive degradation of its protein fibers in vivo leads to a gradual loss of strength over time, with zero occurring between three and six months.
INDICATIONS
Wherever the use of a non-absorbable braided suture is required (soft tissue, skin, blood vessel ligatures).
Because of the gradual loss of all strength that occurs over a period of three to six months, silk suture should not be used where permanent tensile strength is required.
TISSUE REACTIONS
It causes a negligible inflammatory reaction which is transient.
STERILIZATION METHOD
Gamma rays

POLYAMIDE: Nylon, Ethilon

It is synthetic monofilament in nature.
It is produced by extrusion of nylon 6.6.
As a monofilament it has high flowability, which makes it easier to pass through fabrics.
Being a synthetic thread, it guarantees high inertia and tissue tolerability.
As with all monofilaments, to avoid the memory effect and in order to obtain greater knot security, it is advisable to adopt the surgical technique of the flat and square knot.
SHARES
It is stable to tissue enzymes, not degrading and keeping its tensile strength unchanged over time.
INDICATIONS
Wherever the use of a monofilament suture is required (soft tissue x approximation, skin).
TISSUE REACTIONS
It causes a negligible inflammatory reaction which is transient. Subsequently to the inflammatory reaction, the tissue repair phase develops with fibrous formation around the suture.
STERILIZATION METHOD
Ethylene oxide

POLYESTER: Ethibond, Ti-cron

It is a woven non-absorbent synthetic structure.
Polyester is the strongest non-metallic, suture material on the market today.
It is produced with thin polyester filaments woven around a central core that weld perfectly into a single body.
They are generally coated with a uniform layer of silicone which makes them even more inert and non-capillary. Thanks to the special weave and silicone, it has a perfectly uniform gauge along the entire length, which ensures high smoothness and minimal tissue trauma. The exceptional manageability allows the surgeon to easily execute the knot which closes with great safety.
SHARES
It is stable to tissue enzymes, does not degrade and maintains its tensile strength over time.
INDICATIONS
Wherever the use of a non-absorbable braided suture is required. Thanks to its extraordinary tensile strength, it is particularly suitable for the implantation of valve prostheses in cardiovascular surgery.
TISSUE REACTIONS
It causes a negligible inflammatory reaction which is transient.
STERILIZATION METHOD
Gamma rays in 5/0 gauges and larger; with ethylene oxide in gauges 6/0 or smaller and when mounted with pledgetes.

POLYPROPYLENE Prolene, Surgilene

It is synthetic in nature, non-absorbable monofilament.
It is a stereoisomeric, isotactic, crystalline polymer.
The sutures are pigmented blue to increase their visibility. As a monofilament it is endowed with remarkable smoothness, which facilitates the passage in fabrics, especially in the most delicate ones. It is generally silicone-coated for easy passage into tissue. It is characterized by a high breaking load, good thermal resistance.
SHARES
It is stable to tissue enzymes, not degrading and keeping its tensile strength unchanged over time
INDICATIONS
Wherever the use of a monofilament suture is required (soft tissue x approximation and/or ligatures). By virtue of its biological inertness, it is recommended in all those situations in which a minimal tissue reaction is recommended. Due to the peculiar chemical-physical characteristics deriving from its synthetic nature, it is particularly indicated in cardiovascular interventions both with the continuous technique and with detached stitches.
TISSUE REACTIONS
It causes a negligible inflammatory reaction which is transient. Subsequently to the inflammatory reaction, the tissue repair phase develops with fibrous formation around the suture.
STERILIZATION METHOD
Ethylene oxide

POLYGLACTINS 910: Vicryl*

It is synthetic in nature, woven and absorbable. It is a copolymer formed by 90% glycolide and 10% L-lactide. The braided sutures are coated with an equal mixture of glycolide and L-lactide which give it antigenic and antipyrogenic properties. They are usually colored with D&C violet during polymerization but can also be uncolored.
SHARES
The absorption of the polyglactin 910 sutures occurs following hydrolysis processes which degrade the copolymer to glycolic and lactic acid which are subsequently absorbed and metabolised by the body.
INDICATIONS
They are indicated for the approximation and/or ligation of soft tissue
TISSUE REACTIONS
It causes a minimal initial inflammatory reaction accompanied by the formation of fibrous connective tissue. The progressive loss of tensile strength and the absorption of the sutures occur following hydrolysis processes. The initial tensile strength is completely lost 5 weeks after implantation. Absorption is practically complete within 56-70 days
STERILIZATION METHOD
Ethylene oxide

Title
5-NUCLEOTIDASE
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-morbidity and mortality of acute appendicitis
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
BILIRUBIN
BLOOD PRESSURE-why blood pressure is checked on the left arm than the right arm?
BLUE MAN SYNDROME
Bowel components
Branches of internal iliac artery
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CHEMOTHERAPY-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
Folic Acid
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE (GGT)
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
GASTRIC GIST
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
GOUT
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
GROOVED PLANTAR KERATOLYSIS
HAMARTOMA-By what mechanisms do hamartomas cause morbidity?
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What is a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-Where do hamartomas grow?
HAMARTOMA-Why do hamartomas form?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HAMARTOMAS
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HEPATIC VEIN PRESSURE GRADIENT
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYOID BONE
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
JUVENILE POLYPS
KIDNEY-The kidneys and their functions
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
LOIN PAIN-causes
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Medical history-How should be the first contact with the patient?
Medical history-What could be the reason for the medical visit?
MEDICAL TRIAD
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
METEORISM-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-familiarity
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
NODULAR FASCIITIS
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
NUTCRACKER SYNDROME
OCCIPITAL BONE
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
R ratio
RADIOIODINE THERAPY
RED MAN SYNDROME
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
REYE SYNDROME-Complications of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Follow-up of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What is a surgical suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SURGICAL SUTURE-Why apply a surgical suture?
SUTURE THREADS
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
VERMIFORM APPENDIX
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-function of vermiform appendix
VITAL SIGNS
Vitamin K antagonists
Vomiting
WASSERMANN REACTION
WOUND TYPES
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACROMEGALY
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute appendicitis in adults
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-morbidity and mortality of acute appendicitis
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
Acute diverticulitis
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
ACUTE MESENTERIC LYMPHADENITIS
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADIPONECTIN
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
Advanced chronic liver disease-management after removal/suppression of the primary aetiological factor
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE
ALBUMIN
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
ANORECTAL DISEASE-most important aspects in the diagnosis of anorectal disease
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
Aortic arch-major branch order
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
Axillary artery branches
Branches of internal iliac artery
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
Folic Acid
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Necrotizing fasciitis in adult
NON-CIRRHOTIC VASCULAR LIVER DISEASES-Use of anticoagulants
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
VERMIFORM APPENDIX
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-function of vermiform appendix
Vitamin K antagonists

Title
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACALCULIA-causes of acalculia
ACANTHOSIS NIGRICANS-causes
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
Acute cholecystitis and cholangitis in adults
ACUTE LARGE BOWEL OBSTRUCTION-mechanical causes of large bowel obstruction
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
AORTIC STENOSIS-most common causes of aortic stenosis
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
Bowel components
BULIMIA-CAUSES
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CA 19-9 (gastrointestinal cancer associated antigen)
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CHEMOTHERAPY-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Impact of non-aetiological therapies
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
COLONOSCOPY
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DIABETES-etiologic classification
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
FINGER CLUBBING-causes
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER CIRRHOSIS
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Melena-causes of melena
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METEORISM-causes
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
POLYURIA-causes
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
WOUND-wound cleaning classification

Title
ABDOMINAL AORTIC ANEURISM-What is an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm?
ABDOMINAL DISTENSION-causes of abdominal distension
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACROCYANOSIS-differential diagnosis
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-acute appendicitis definition
Acute diverticulitis
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BILIARY DYSKINESIA
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
CARDIAC ARREST-definition
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
DIABETES-diagnostic criteria
DIABETES-etiologic classification
DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS-7 myths to beat
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
Diaphragm apertures
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
Duodenum-lengths of parts
DYSPHAGIA-What is the definition of dysphagia?
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD)
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE
Meckel’s diverticulum-details in 5 two
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition

Title
ACUTE APPENDICITIS-epidemiology of acute appendicitis
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
DIABETES-etiologic classification
ENDOTHELIN
ENTEROPATHIC ACRODERMATITIS
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-clinical manifestations
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-definition
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-differential diagnosis
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-laboratory findings
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-management
Eosinophilic granuloma (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-clinical presentation
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-definition
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-differential diagnosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-epidemiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-etiology
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-imaging studies
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-laboratory test
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-prognosis
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis(Churg-Strauss syndrome)-treatment
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Acute variceal bleeding
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA (MEN)
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
VERMIFORM APPENDIX-embryology of vermiform appendix

Title
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
EOSINOPHILIC GASTROINTESTINAL DISEASE-histological criteria
HAMARTOMA-By what mechanisms do hamartomas cause morbidity?
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What are the complications of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the epidemiological data on hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the histopathological characteristics of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What is a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HAMARTOMA-Where do hamartomas grow?
HAMARTOMA-Why do hamartomas form?
HAMARTOMA-With which diseases can the differential diagnosis of hamartomas be made?
HAMARTOMAS
HEMOGLOBINURIA-causes
HEMORRHOIDS
HEMORRHOIDS-classification of hemorrhoids
HEMORRHOIDS-therapeutic advice
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HEPATIC VEIN PRESSURE GRADIENT
HEPATOCELLULAR DAMAGE
Hiccups-causes of hiccups
HYOID BONE
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA-causes
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing

Title
ACTH-causes of increased ACTH
AMYLASE-causes of increased amylase values
Branches of internal iliac artery
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
Diuretics and anti-inflammatory interactions
GAMMA-GLUTAMYLTRANSFERASE-increase in GGT values
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between internal and external hemorrhoids?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
ICHTHYOSIS VULGARIS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGROWN TOENAIL-At what age is it most common?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Can the use of antibiotics improve healing results?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Electrosurgical nail matrixectomy
INGROWN TOENAIL-How common is ingrown toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How does it present clinically?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How long to continue non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-How to make the diagnosis?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Is removal of granulation tissue necessary?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with phenol
INGROWN TOENAIL-Matricectomy with sodium hydroxide
INGROWN TOENAIL-other terms known
INGROWN TOENAIL-Partial nail avulsion procedure
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the agents used for chemical cautery of the matrix?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the consequences if persist an unresolved toenail?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for chemical matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the contraindications for surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the methods for matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the post onycectomy advice?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the recurrences due to?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from phenol use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results from use of trichloroacetic acid?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of electrosurgical nail bed ablation?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the results of laser matrixectomy?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the risk factors?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the surgical techniques used?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What are the therapeutic indications?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What diseases does the differential diagnosis include?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best intervention to prevent recurrences?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the best treatment technique?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the goal of surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What is the non-surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of local anesthesia to use?
INGROWN TOENAIL-What type of treatment to choose?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When does ingrown toenail occur?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use nonsurgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-When to use surgical treatment?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which is better: total nail avulsion or excision of the nail edge?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Which nail affects the most?
INGROWN TOENAIL-Why is needed matrixectomy?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for clinical examination
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Checklist for history
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-Details to be specified in the diagnosis
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the clinical differences between direct and indirect inguinal hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What is the definition of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
ISOLATED HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA
ISOTONIC FLUIDS AND THEIR USES
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Title
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACUTE PANCREATITIS
ADRENAL GLANDS-anatomy and physiology
ALT predominant hepatocellular damage
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
ASCITES-Preventing further decompensation in patients with ascites
AST-predominant hepatocellular damage
BACK PAIN-causes of back pain
CALF PAIN-CAUSES
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
CIRRHOSIS-Anticoagulation and PVT in cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of (first) decompensation
CIRRHOSIS-Prevention of further decompensation
COLORECTAL POLYPS
Diagnosis of clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with compensated advanced chronic liver disease
DIFFUSE ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
DRUGS IN PREGNANCY
Duodenum-lengths of parts
Epigastric abdominal pain-causes
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
EYE PAIN-CAUSES
GROIN PAIN-causes
GROOVE PANCREATITIS
HAMARTOMA-What is the prognosis of hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
HEMORRHOIDS-What is the difference between prolapsed internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids?
HYPERPLASTIC (METAPLASTIC) POLYPS
INFLAMMATORY POLYPS
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-The points in favor of hernia
INGUINAL AND FEMORAL HERNIA-What are the parts of hernia?
INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION-physiology
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LEFT LOWER ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LEFT UPPER QUADRANT ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
LOIN PAIN-causes
MEDICAL CAUSES OF ABDOMINAL PAIN
Medical history-How should be the first contact with the patient?
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
PAIN DURING BREATH-CAUSES
PAIN DURING EVACUATION-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE ARMS AND HANDS-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE BONES-CAUSES
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
PAIN OF LOWER LIMBS-CAUSES
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PALLOR-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PENICILLINS – which antibiotic to use if the patient is allergic to penicillins?
PERIUMBILICAL PAIN-causes
PERSISTENT COMA-causes of persistent coma
Polyarteritis Nodosa
POLYURIA-causes
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-definition
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-diagnosis
Portal vein thrombosis and portal cavernoma in the absence of cirrhosis-management
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-definition
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Diagnosis
Porto-sinusoidal vascular disorder-Management
PREDIABETES-diagnostic criteria
PROTHROMBIN TIME
PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS INDUCED WEIGHT GAIN
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes

Title
Abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
ACTH-causes of ACTH reduction
ANO-RECTAL PAIN-CAUSES
CANCER-chances of recovering from cancer
Cirrhosis recompensation-definition
CIRRHOSIS-Role of infections in decompensated cirrhosis
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
COLON CANCER-difference between left and right colon cancer
DRUG-ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION
DUODENAL ULCER DISEASE-risk factors associated with duodenal ulcer
ESOPHAGEAL VARICES-Preventing recurrent variceal haemorrhage (secondary prophylaxis)
LIVER-inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions
LIVER-role of the liver in the body
Medical history-What could be the reason for the medical visit?
PORTAL HYPERTENSIVE GASTROPATHY-Preventing recurrent bleeding
R ratio
RADIOIODINE THERAPY
RED MAN SYNDROME
REGIONAL ANESTHESIA
RENAL ACTINOMYCOSIS
REYE SYNDROME-Complications of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-definition of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Differential diagnosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Epidemiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Etiology of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Follow-up of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-laboratory findings in Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Pathological findings of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prevention of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Prognosis of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Right lower quadrant abdominal pain-causes
WASSERMANN REACTION

Title
ANESTHESIOLOGY-modern scope of practice
BLUE MAN SYNDROME
Budd-Chiari syndrome-diagnosis
Budd-Chiari syndrome-management
Budd-Chiari syndrome–definition
CEREBELLAR SIGNS
CIRRHOSIS-The role of sarcopenia and frailty in further decompensation
Compensated advanced chronic liver disease-Spleen stiffness measurement
DILATED SUPERFICIAL ABDOMINAL VEINS-causes
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
FACIAL SWELLING-CAUSES
GILBERT SYNDROME
GIST-Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor Classification
HAMARTOMA-Do hamartomas spread?
HAMARTOMA-What are the hereditary syndromes associated with hamartomatous formation?
HAMARTOMA-What are the symptoms and signs that can be found in hamartomas?
HAMARTOMA-What specific procedures are used to treat hamartomas?
METABOLIC SYNDROME-What is metabolic syndrome?
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NUTCRACKER SYNDROME
PAIN IN THE SOLE OF THE FEET-CAUSES
Pathophysiology of Shock
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Assessment of surgical risks
RED MAN SYNDROME
REYE SYNDROME-Signs and symptoms of Reye’s syndrome
SLEEPNESS-CAUSES
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-common causes
SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH-definition
SUPRAPUBIC ABDOMINAL PAIN-causes
SURGICAL SUTURE – What are the characteristics of an ideal suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What are the essential rules in the application of a suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What is a surgical suture?
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SURGICAL SUTURE-Why apply a surgical suture?
SUTURE THREADS
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
VITAL SIGNS
WOUND-stages of wound healing
WOUND-Surgical wound healing

Title
ACHILLES TENDON-causes of decreased Achilles tendon reflex
Anti-streptolysin O titre (ASO or ASLO) positive
BARIATRIC SURGERY-trends in bariatric surgery
BURNING IN THE TONGUE-causes
CANCER OF THE ESOPHAGUS-treatment
CAROTID ARTERIAL PULSE-parvus and tardus carotid arterial pulse
COUGH-TYPES OF COUGH
DYSPNEA-TYPES OF DYSPNEA
Esophageal varices-Varices and screening endoscopy in patients that cannot be treated with non-selective beta blockers
HAMARTOMA-Can hamartoma degenerate into a malignant tumor?
HAMARTOMA-How are hamartomas treated?
HAMARTOMA-What tests will be done to diagnose a hamartoma?
HYPERKALEMIA-treatment of acute hyperkalemia
LATEX AGGLUTINATION TEST POSITIVE-causes
LIVER FUNCTION TEST
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-cholestatic pattern
LIVER FUNCTION TEST-mixed pattern
MALIGNANT INTRA-ABDOMINAL TUMORS IN CHILDREN-the most common malignant intra-abdominal tumors in children
MEDICAL TRIAD
MEMBRANOUS TONSILLITIS-causes
METHOTREXATE TOXICITY
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-diagnosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-epidemiology
Neuroendocrine tumors-key points about neuroendocrine tumors
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-pathophysiology
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-prognosis
Neuroendocrine tumors-Symptoms and Signs
NEUROENDOCRINE TUMORS-Treatment
PALLIATIVE CANCER THERAPY
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Portal pressure gradient in the setting of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion
PORTAL HYPERTENSION-Treatment of portal hypertension in extrahepatic portal vein obstruction
PROTHROMBIN TIME
REYE SYNDROME-Treatment of Reye’s syndrome
Splanchnic vein thrombosis-Aetiological work-up in primary thrombosis of the portal venous system or hepatic venous outflow tract
SURGICAL SUTURE-What types of sutures are there?
SYNCOPE-types of syncope
THORACIC ACTINOMYCOSIS
TIETZE SYNDROME
TINNITUS-causes of tinnitus
TRANSAMINASES ELEVATION VALUES-meaning
TRANSIENT HYPERPHOSPHATASEMIA
TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE BLADDER(TCC)-incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

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